Macedonia / Macedônia (MC)
The Institute of Forensic Medicine, Criminalistics and Medical Odontology and the Department of Forensic Medicine are established in 1952. The department was established at the Medical Faculty in Skopje at the same time with the establishment of the faculty. At that time as part of the Medical Faculty in Skopje was the Faculty of Dentistry, and due to that since 1952 the teaching of forensic medicine and criminalistics takes place at the
Medical and Dental faculty in Skopje. The curriculum was universal for all state faculties at the territory of former Jugoslavia.
The Medical Faculty in Skopje is part of University of Ssc.”Kiril and Metodius” as the only University in the Republic of Macedonia. The department of forensic medicine was obligated to begin with teaching forensic medicine and criminalistics at the faculty of Law. At that time the Institute while establishing its own department at Forensic medicine in the same time worked on creation of forensic medicine and criminalistics staff as well as on creation of teaching and teaching assistant staff at the Department of Forensic medicine for the realization of the curriculum at the Medical and the Law faculty. The education of the staff took place on two levels at the territory of Former Jugoslavia with mutual communication and collaboration among the related Institutions and sending staff abroad of the country, and at the time the young staff had extended stays at the Institute of forensic medicine in East Berlin at the department of professor Procop, at the laboratories at Scotland Yard in England for introduction of methods from the area of criminalistics and at the same time methods and procedures were standardized according to worlds standards in that time the field of forensic medicine. That was the beginning of the growth of the Institute and the Department of Forensic medicine. In the early 70ties a center for Security was established with the police high school and the Faculty for security. The Department of Forensic medicine was actively involved in the development of staff for teaching of criminalistics for the police high school and the Faculty for security taking responsibilities for realisation of the teaching curriculum in forensic medicine and criminalistics and also at the center for Security.
Since the independence of the Republic of Macedonia in 1990, the Institute of Forensic medicine and the Department of Forensic Medicine and criminalistics continued thei activities according to the taken duties at the previously mentioned faculties. Since 1990 continuous efforts are made for adjustment of teaching curriculum for graduate and post graduate education according to the international standards and norms defined at the legislative bodies at the Ministry Council of Europe and at the same time standardizing of the methods and procedures in the application work of the Institute for the needs of the legal and police organs in the country. At the moment it is completely incorporated in the educational an routine practice as it is in the following protocols: the Recomedation - R - 99(3) of the Committee of Ministers to the member countries for harmonization of the rules for forensic medicine autopsy, description of forensic medicine as medical specialty in EU at the European Council of Forensic medicine, the Istanbul protocol, the Direction of Interpol for identification and other important international documents for standardization of forensic medicine activity in the areas of application and teaching.
Since 1993 as a part of the Institute of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics Department of Medical Deontology is formed, which immediately took over the duties for teaching of medical deontology at the Medical Faculty and Associates Degree Schools for nursing, radio - technologist, physical therapist and speech pathologis. According that in 2007 the Institute changed its name to Institute for Foren sic Medicine , Criminalistics and Deontology. Since the independence of the country till present the professional staff of the Institute and the departments of the Institute are making efforts to establish close collaboration with related Institutes in Europe and the world. Since the year of 2000 we continuously collaborate with Columbia University in New York with the Department of Neuopatholgy, which resulted with two scientific projects which are in the process of funding by National Institute of Heath of the USA in the field of Schizophrenia and Depression, which resulted with scientific publications in renowned world scientific journals. These project enabled the creation of tissue bank for scientific work mostly on brain tissue. This tissue bank of the National Institute of Health in the USA continuously receives high scores for the quality of the tissue which manage to preserve at the tissue bank. In close collaboration with the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Zagreb – Republic of Croatia the institute established DNA laboratory for the needs of forensic practice. In 2004 the laboratory for forensic DNA started working, and in 2005 got its first license from GEDNAP, which is successfully renewed till present.
At the time of the war conflict in 2001 the Institute and its departments managed to keep their independence protected by the autonomy of the University. During that time the complete activities of the Institute were under continuous supervision of experts of the police forces of Europol, and at times experts from the Hague tribunal, and after the end of the war conflict, the work of the Institute was evaluated as highly professional and independent scientific institution.
With the establishment of the Institute expert’s laboratories were formed necessary for every Institute of this kind, such as the laboratory of criminalistics, necropsy, toxicology, measuring levels of alcohol and psychotropic substances, traseology and hematology. Unfortunately since the independence of the country, especially since 2006 the financial and consequently the expert power of the institute continues to weaken due to the lack of acceptance of the need for continuous support of the Institute by the administrative authority, as an immense need of such institution in the country. This resulted in closing of the toxicology laboratory, which at the moment cannot respond to any of the questions in the area of the forensic. Till 2005 the Toxicology Laboratory at the institute was recognized by UNDCP (The international program for Drug Control of the United Nations)and every sixth month successfully passed tests of the accredited institution (Vienna International Center) of the nited Nations located in Austria. The Institute also took part in the production of the annual report EMCDDA (European Monitoring Center and Drug Dependence).
In the passed period, since the independence, with great efforts we manage to enable young staff to communicate with the world through their participation at international conferences and educational stays. Unfortunately the present extremely unfavorable financial conditions of the Institute provide little opportunities for their opening toward related scientific institution. For this kind of work we asked for aid from the international community, but we never got a confirming answer, so only because of the great collaboration with colleagues from related institutes inthe world we manage to send young experts on short scientific stays outside of the country at the Institute of Forensic medicine in Zagreb, Novi Sad, Ljubljana and in the United States at the Columbia University in New York, where their stay was financed by previously mentioned projects, and from the field of medical ethics in Paris at the Rene Descartes institute at the lab LEM at the hospital Necker. Since the time of former Yugoslavia, the legislation in the area of Criminal Law regulated the expert procedure. The basis for that legislation was the classical German Legislation of the field of criminal procedure. The expert procedure was regulated under three laws: the Criminal Law, Criminal procedure Act and the Law on civil procedure.
With the independence of the Republic of Macedonia in 1990 these laws are overtaken and gradually modified for the modern needs and views. Unfortunately in 2010 a law of expert opinion was accepted, by which the whole expert procedure occurs under the supervision of the Minister of Justice, which erases all the principles for good experts practice, such as freedom, independence and professionalism. In this law which consist of 54 articles of the law, the minister of Justice in mentioned 36 times, which implies that he is responsible for all the segments of the work from issuing licenses, creation of chamber of experts, taking a license away, creating sub - legal acts, ethical codex, dictation of prices for expert procedure, creation of educational program, everything under the mask of the Camber of experts which in the law “de facto” is intended as a part of the Ministry of Justice. Unfortunately in spite of our efforts towards the responsible ministries we can’t obtain the official English translations from Macedonian language, and we believe that our translation cannot be professional or official because it is not accepted by the administrative authority of the country. According to our information neither of these laws was delivered to the Venice commission.